Hey! I’ve got four things for you today; freaky reasons, a top model outburst, an insane business to start with 100k in Nigeria for 2021, and a quick billionaire request.

For you to get to this page that means you are thinking of that lucrative business to start with 100K in Nigeria or less capital.

From our research and survey on money-spinning low-risk productive business in Nigeria to start in 2021, you need to consider business ideas around your passion and your environment so as to keep the initial investment capital low yet sustainable.

It will interest you to know that, there are some unpopular easy profitable business ideas you can start with less than 100k capital and you won’t need a loan of any nature to execute such business. We outlined those businesses from our experienced solution for you to try out in 2021.

Here are 60 good businesses to start with 100k in Nigeria:

1. Cooking & delivery business

Currently, many people no longer have just the time to make any meal for themselves or even for the family due to their busy schedules while some people like tasty delicious meals but don’t know how to cook them.

If you have skill or passion in cooking or you have been thinking on what type of business can I start with 100k in Nigeria 2021.

In the meantime let us describe some of the cooking businesses that are under 100k for you:

• First of all, you can take a contract of going to peoples home and cooking different dishes that they can store while you charge for your service.

• You can do corporate service: where you take peoples orders, cook in your house and deliver to their offices, events or home while branding or customising your package

• You can do catering services.

• You can have a fast food restaurant shop at a busy location or bus stop

• Your cooking can target healthy or weight watchers niche market by using organic and natural ingredients.

Make sure you cook and deliver what people want at the right time.

2. Content writer

If you have passion about writing on any particular niche then this will be a business to start for you.  You will have to be a professional writer in making, who can produce content for online use.

Those content have to be in the form of articles, blog posts or video contents and any other form of writing for web. You don’t need much to start this business, this is one of those businesses you can start with low capital and high return, however, you will need internet connection, smart phone or laptop.

Many businesses are looking for people like you to manage their website with contents that can pitch sales for them or you can be a freelancer on platforms like fiverr for as low as $5.

3. Car wash business

It is important to note that car wash business can milk money for you depending on your plan and business ideas so you need to get focused with this one even though you started with a budget as low as 100k. It is a business you run anywhere in the country not necessarily in Lagos city but you need a nice location with water supply.

By the way, we mentioned that the business can milk money for you depending on your business idea and plan.

Let us run a few scenarios for you here; when people bring their car for in and out washing which last for an hour or so depending on the size of the car, they need somewhere to wait, rest while waiting for their car, imagine having a corner for relaxation with cool music background that can serve chilled drinks and chops or snacks or foods that can go with it.

Your next question will be. How can I set it up when you said is a business to start with 100k in Nigeria 2021?

Here is the deal; you can outsource those services to other small entrepreneur with quality services while you collect rent which adds up to your monthly revenue. Make sure you have terms of service that you can renew from time to time.

Another scenario, in the long run; you can provide the services yourself by employing people to do them like running a bar.

Final scenario, you can include indoor sports like snooker, table tennis.

4. Daycare services

Generally speaking, is no longer the era that mothers are full time house wives, majority of mothers are working full time if not more to support their families, so that brings us to the subject matter where will they keep their babies to be able to go to work.

Following this, mothers have to patronise day cares while some are far away or not reliable, so you can see the problem and you are still asking what kind of business can I start with 100k in Nigeria. As you can see, you can provide day-care services solution with 100k in Nigeria for 2021.

You need a place or if your place is spacious; start with it and network with relations, friends and your community children as your first off takers or clients.

5. Fairly used goods or second hand items

In any case, you must have heard of people buying and using second hand stuffs or that you are part of the existing web.

The Nigerian economy is so bad that minimum wage is not enough to buy new items for people so they rest their shoulders on fairly used items such as gadgets, clothes, shoes, cars, household items and every other thing useable that you can think of.

How about the popular Okirika clothes? We are not just talking about or concentrating on foreign used items but home used items as well.

Is so obvious that you can start this profitable business with less than 100k investment.

6. Laundry business

Again, is a business that is gaining attention right now because people don’t have time to wash their clothes anymore even clean their homes.

You can equally save cost from washing detergents by making yours because the washing detergent is the highest portion of your monthly overhead cost so try to minimise it and still keep quality high. You can learn to make the detergent if you don’t have the skill already.

Now that you are ready, you can get a good location within residential area with clean water and in the long run you can incorporate cleaning offices, event centre and make sure you are protecting your integrity if you employing people to avoid stealing client’s things while you do safety and security documentation as well as checks before employing.

7. Mini importation business

Admittedly, mini importation business is one other business ideas in Nigeria that you can start in 2021.  Basically buying from companies overseas and selling in Nigeria.

You can start with little capital to import goods within your capacity from China to Nigeria or any other manufacturing country.

The requirement for starting a profitable mini importation business is internet connection, computer and social media presence.

Mini importation business is an online business to start with 100k in Nigeria and within few months you are smiling to the bank even make as much as 200% profit.

8. Production and sales of hand sanitizers

In fact, hand sanitizer has been in existence but the recent outbreak of coronavirus with a rising rate of other diseases has increased the growing demand for wellness and the use of hand sanitizer.

The demand for hand hygiene products such as hand sanitizer has exceeded the supply of hand sanitizers.

Therefore, this shows that the market size of hand sanitizer is huge which is an indication of good business to start with 100k. The demand will continue to increase as people have come to understand the benefits and the need for using hand sanitizer

9. Dropshipping business

Dropshipping is a retail fulfilment model where the store doesn’t keep its products in stock rather purchases the goods from the seller or manufacturer while the seller send the goods to the customer with any personalised message from the dropshipper.

For you to start and reach a wide audience as well as having an online store where you can sell products to consumers; you must have social media accounts and/or website to make huge revenues.

You can start with 100k for this type of business even as little as 20k. All it takes is just few steps to get your supply economics done.

Indeed, dropshipping is an Ecommerce business and yet one of the easiest way to make money online.

Read Now: 14 profitable products to import from China.

10. Pure honey business

Surely you would agree that pure honey is one of the businesses in Nigeria that one can export or wholesaling.

Raw honey business idea is one of those that you can make money by adding value, imagine sourcing from bee keepers and branding it in a nice package not only- but also test that it is raw or pure or original not adulterated honey.

Honey is a very simple business that one can start with 100k in Nigeria and very profitable business owing to its consumption level.

11. Data and recharge card business

Are you still asking what business to start with 100k in Nigeria. Ask no more, just start data bundle, VTU business and printing recharge card in wholesale by using your smart phone or laptop.

Nigerians consumption on data and recharge card are so huge because we need credit or data or both that is why banks are equally selling them in order to have a cut of the market share.

If you want to start a business with little capital in Nigeria then recharge card is one of those you can start with high return on capital especially if you are selling in volumes on a daily basis because the profit margin on each is very small.

Thus, quantity is the key in making good profit.

12. Digital marketing business

Generally speaking, digital marketing is any online marketing efforts or assets such as email marketing, social media marketing, pay-per-click advertising and blogging; they help introduce people to the company and pitch them to buy goods or services.

Nowadays, a lot of businesses are interested in hiring people who can do any or all of the above for them.

And also, email marketing is one of the oldest forms of online marketing and still growing stronger due its cost effectiveness. Do you know that many people started this niche business to start with 100k in Nigeria 2020.

It is clear that digital marketing agency niche business is a business to start with 100k in Nigeria for 2021 or become a digital marketing expert freelancer if you have the skills or ready to acquire them.

Read Now: A-Z on building a website in Nigeria under ₦18k.

13. Fitness and weight loss consultant

In this present situation, most people are weight and health conscious.

For instance, if you are previously a plus size person but now a slim fit person as a result of you following some health procedures and can transfer the steps or the routines that you used in getting your body back on track to other people.

This clearly shows that, you can support, motivate and educate people on healthy eating lifestyle while maintaining healthy lifestyle and fitness regime habits.

For this reason, this indicates that you can solve problems and if you can solve problem, you can equally charge for solving problems that becomes a business, hence this business is one that you can start with 100k in Nigeria.

Again, for this purpose you can start a fitness and weight loss consultancy.

Unquestionably one of the businesses you can start with 100k in Nigeria and it can be done online through social media platforms.

14. Cooking gas business

Presently in Nigeria, cooking gas is cheaper than any other means of cooking and people are keying into using gas. You can start gas business on small or high level depending on your capital or budget.

With this mind, we are concentrating on the low level not having a gas station so is one of the business to start with 100k in Nigeria. You can start this business in a residential area where a lot people use gas in cooking as your targeted customers provided there is no or low gas sale competition there, so then in the long run you can sell accessories like clips, pipes, regulators and etc.

You can start this business with as low as 100,000 Naira and in one month you can recoup as high as 50,000 Naira, just invest in location, networking and gas cylinder.

15. Palm oil business

As a matter of fact, if you are still asking yourself business I can start with 100k in Nigeria 2021 then palm oil business is one of the profitable businesses any one can dive into and make huge return on investment due to its diverse usefulness and huge income.

In short, business opportunities in palm oil business in Nigeria are quite many. From its kernel to refined oil, the palm oil produce industry has empowered many small medium enterprises in Nigeria. The key here is making sure you source from a genuine supplier likewise that of pure honey then you can brand it.

16. POS business (Agent mobile banking)

At a glance, point of sale business offers services like funds transfer and withdrawal, sales of airtime, bill payments like DSTV OR GOTV even WAEC.

POS is point of sale or service involves much liquidity which means available cash to give out as withdrawal.

Accessing ATM from any location in Nigeria is a big task so people like to patronise agents for commission rather than travelling to banks or ATM. Is that commission that is the key to this business.

As a matter of fact, POS business is a cash minting business which has silently been in existence, this is a small business to start with 100k in Nigeria and make huge revenue.

17. SEO specialist

An SEO expert is someone that can optimizes websites in order to achieve higher search engine rankings.

For instance, to find products information on search engines like Google and Bing that’s the challenge most businesses are facing not having a website that cannot pitch a deal.

Many businesses in Nigeria are in need of specialists that can analyses, reviews and implements changes to their websites so they are optimized for search results but you need to have the skill.

Nowadays, GOTV and DSTV are always in need of agents that can participant in their agents program for expansion.

Here is the deal, you can start POS agent and incorporate TV subscription even with recharge cards sells in Nigeria for 2021.

18. Sewing & sales of bed sheets & pillowcase

Sewing is another business ideas to start with 100k in Nigeria 2021, if you know how to sew, this then becomes a plus for you as you can employ one or two persons to support you on producing the bed sheets and pillowcase.

On the other hand, you can outsource the production but using good material is very important especially choosing materials that won’t run colours but are cotton materials. You can make bed sheets for hotels even hospitals as a contract service.

19. Perfume business

Meanwhile, perfume is business start with 100k in Nigeria 2021. Everybody wants to follow the trend and not to be left out.

There are perfume business ideas to start with less than 100K in Nigeria. If you have the skill to make perfumes or perfume oils why not venture into this business as a full timer.

Yes, you need industrial chemistry knowledge to start this business but the good news is that you can learn from successful people in the sector or industry, then prepare for your unique packaging and marketing of your perfume to the right audience like people who like to smell really nice.

All you need to get started is create a business plan for the perfume business, create new scents, purchase your choice of bottles then create your brand and start selling as well as giving out testers to hook customers.

20. Production and sales of household detergents

The thing is that detergents are needed in our various homes on a daily basis but the important thing here is making one and selling it to many homes and offices as well as possible.

Yes, we are talking about businesses that you can do with 100k in any case you can start this business with less than 100k investment.

Believe it or not, these big companies are making money while selling at high prices so if you have the skill to produce quality cleaning agents then people can buy from you and carry out free ads for you. You will need to widen your network to increase your customer base.

21. Production & sales of organic skincare

It comes as no surprise that Nigerian are beginning to get entangle with the organic trend.

It will interest you to know that, the global organic skincare products market is projected to triple in the near future.

Organic skincare products are profitable business to start with 100k in Nigeria with little investment for high profits.

The rising demand for organic body lotion to face creams is expected to drive the growth, so why not tap into this market segment if you have the skill or interested in learning to become a formulator.

22. Frozen food business

Anything that has to deal with food is a juicy business. The frozen food business is lucrative but you need a good location to attract more sales.

Similarly, is like food stuff business just that is a business you trade in the freezer or storage apart from that you need a steady power supply to avoid spoilage.

The steady power supply is a problem in Nigeria so you can get a place with a marginal power supply or get an alternative to a central power supply like a generator or solar supply.

You may decide to market online then get ready to deliver to homes, stores and businesses

23. Production & sales of organic fruits drink

Again, people are becoming interested in what will keep them healthy and looking younger even the elderly. And this can be achieved by a healthy lifestyle such as eating healthy foods and drinks.

Now, you can see there is a huge market opportunity for you to start making money by making fresh organic drinks.

You need little capital to start this cool business while you can incorporate packaging palm wine in bottle-beer container like going forward since healthy option people tend to move in the absence of organic fruit drinks to palm wine rather than beer.

24. Food stuff business

Food stuff business can be done with any amount of money not necessarily 100k Naira and at any location as long as there are human being living in that place.

It is a daily income business in Nigeria and you will make money on a daily basis.

How to start a foodstuff business in Nigeria is very easy, the things you need to start foodstuff business is capital of any amount, where to buy raw foodstuff from suppliers or producers, a shop and online store.

Pursuing this further, before starting this business you must know the type of raw food stuffs that you want to sell because there are so many food stuffs, after that you connect to local farmers for supplies at lower rate then you sell with a margin or market price depending on your location.

Foodstuff businesses is a continuous business without lockdown, imagine government all over the world labelled them as essential commodity during corona virus pandemic and gave them access to sell to the public.

You can see why you must start this business; people must eat food irrespective of your class in the society.

25. Computer repair business

Meanwhile, people are asking is computer repair business profitable or is computer repair a good career when virtually everybody on the street got one or more computer. Okay, it’s a viable and profitable venture and a career that will provide good employment opportunities in the near future.

Also, if you have a technical knowledge or background understanding of computers then starting a small computer repair business could be a great idea for you with 100k in Nigeria 2021.

More so, you can learn the skill if you are passionate about the business or looking for business to start with 100k in Nigeria for 2021.

26. Jewelry making and accessories

Whether you are interested in making your own pieces or producing your designs with manufacturer or merchandising.

Recently, Jewelry is a must for the female folks even the males have joined the trend. You can start your own unique handmade jewelry and showcase it on social media links so people will start asking you to make for them even personalise for them.

27. Phone repairs business

Similarly, Phone repairs business is a lucrative and profitable venture in today’s world. There are a lot of phones out there, these days people carry more than one mobile phones.

Do you know that most people have phones but they don’t know their functionalities and operational aspect of the phones the engineers are not exempted, so they are always at the mercy of phone technician so you can charge anything to fix the phone.

As there are a lot of phones in circulation whereas there are a lot of phone problem that needs phone technicians. If have the knowledge or willing to learn the skill, it is an absolute business to start with 100k in Nigeria in 2021.

To add to it, in the long run you can add accessories to the business but you need a very busy location.

28. Farming business

Presently, farming business is a very profitable business in Nigeria. There are a lot of agricultural business ideas for aspiring entrepreneurs to go into such as, poultry farming, snail farming, rice farming, vegetable farming, tomato farming, fish farming, goat farming and many more. Anybody having basic knowledge of farming and manufacturing operation with proper strategic planning can start with 100k.

Furthermore, you need to identify local produce and farming problems in Nigeria before venturing into any farming business.

For instance, Nigerian consume a lots of meat, vegetables  and eggs on a daily basis while the demand is higher than supply; so imagine starting a poultry farming or vegetable farming for all season.

29. Fresh Fruits and vegetables business

Another lucrative business to start with 100k in Nigeria 2021 as people are becoming health conscious about what they eat and many are placed on healthy diet that are filled with vegetables and fresh fruits.

The market size is huge that you can be part of the market share as a result, you need a nice clean location where people that are in need of fresh fruits and vegetables can patronise you.

You can niche down on this one, you have to think whether you want to be known for organic fruits and vegetables or green-house grown tropical fruits and vegetables or other fruits and vegetables.  If you have the strength you can grow it yourself bear in mind is for commercial use not for your household consumption.

30. Egg distribution business

Again, the egg consumption in Nigeria is very huge and profitable likewise real estate because people need shelter; the demand is greater than supply.

Equally, egg supply business is the fastest way of getting rich in poultry business not poultry farming, you can be poultry business but not the farming.

Egg supply does not require advanced tools but mobility, easy to set up and operate as low-cost business idea. You can source for eggs and supply to commercial or individuals which give you high yield as you make it mobile by taking the eggs to the consumers rather than having a sales point.

Egg distribution business is obviously a good business to start with 100k in Nigeria for 2021 if you have a car already or can be hiring a car for the meantime.

31. Web design business

Designing website is easier than you might imagine but you need web and visual design skills. If you are interested but you don’t have the skill then go learn the basics of web design and progress while on the job as a professional.

Now that you are ready, set up your work environment, form your support team then set your business plan and decide on the products and services you are to offer as well as market your business.

To begin with, you can see that this business is one of those that should be classified under businesses in Nigeria to start with 100k.

32. Home tutoring business

Is one of the education business ideas that you can begin today with less than 100k capital in Nigeria. If you are knowledgeable in any key subject areas like English, maths and science subjects then you are on your way to hitting jackpot.

You can start an online home-based tutoring business or rent a place for evening or weekend lessons while you advertise for it then your pioneer client success will do the rest advert for you. And also, you can employ other good tutors to fill up other subjects that are their core strength.

You will need to create a plan for successful and profitable home tutoring while you earn a steady income by teaching subjects that you are expert and love.

33. Social media manager

Another high sorted after business right now, that you can start with less than 100k in Nigeria 2021. All you need is you smart phone or laptop if any, internet connection and the skill. You certainly don’t need a degree or high level of expertise in any field to become a social media manager but social media skills. You can remotely do this job even as a full timer or part timer.

Social media is all about communication so a social media manager, you should be ready for marketing, copywriter, designer besides creating, maintaining brand promotions as well as company information for the company across all social media networks.

34. Clothing business

Clothing production business is booming right now in Nigeria with aseobis and owambes. There is always one function to the other or one activity to another, you name it.

If you know how to sew professionally kudos for you but you can still acquire the skill if you are interested and passionate about making clothes as a fashion designer.

Although there are too many tailors out there but the demands are high and untapped niches as well. Clothing business is just the right business to start with 100k in Nigeria.

Additionally, you will decide your niche market, get a creative space or sew in your home for the meantime, set your business plan, create your designs plus brand it; then after that you can produce and test your products.

35. Soap making business

Another best business idea to start with 100k or less than 100k capital in Nigeria for 2021. You need to acquire the skill to make soaps and bath bombs unless you already have the knowledge. You need a business plan or budget for the 100k then you buy your tools such as digital scale and materials.

Soap making business has different niches so you can choose your niche whether you are to make organic or ordinary soaps rather identify your ideal target customers.

If you want to succeed in the soap making business, you have to be ready to market your soaps online and also, promoting your products on social media.

36. Web graphic design

As with web design and is even part of the areas of web design likewise authoring and user interface design. You need to follow the same pattern of web design unless is normal graphic design that you are interested.

Above all, there are some money-spinning businesses that are doable with more than 100k in Nigeria but can still be done under 100k what matters here is your entry investment level.

Here are list of business to start with 100k in Nigeria 2021 and yet still doable with more than 100k:

37. Interior design business.

38. Liquid hand wash business.

39. Furniture retail business.

40. Diesel fuel-fuel.

41. Makeup and manicure specialists.

42. Cement sales and distribution.

43. Uniform clothing business.

44. Real estate agent.

45. Shirt making business.

46. Amazon EBook publishing.

47. Sales of gift items and household equipment.

48. Sales of fashion accessories.

49. Photography and video editing.

50. Hairdresser business.

51. Barbeque business.

52. Affiliate marketing.

53. Barbing salon.

54. Pharmaceutical business.

55. Sales of baby items.

56. Internet services.

57. Car accessories.

58. Spices.

59. Shawarma.

60. Pure water.


In conclusion, for you to be financial sustained you need to check out our business to start with 100k in Nigeria for 2021 which  is a question that needs deep thought seasoned solution given the economic situation of the country and the world at large.

Surely you will agree that One hundred thousand naira is a small cash but it is not easy to behold such amount of money so care should be taken in deciding where to invest it as well as reducing the risk; that’s the reason why we have taken time to give you a collection of best business to start with 100k in Nigeria that is profitable business with possible expansion in the long run, however, every business has its own inherent risk.

Nevertheless, you need to consider business ideas around your passion and your location or environment.

Have any practical or doable money-spinning business to start with 100k in Nigeria 2021 or your own? Share them with us in the comment section below.

History has given us a vintage view of different types of feminism over the years down to this modern era’s feminism. Let’s start with a quote from Rebecca West on feminism.

“I myself have never been able to find out precisely what feminism is: I only know that people call me a feminist whenever I express sentiments that differentiate me from a doormat.”

Rebecca West

We shall take these words by Rebecca West, one of the greatest underappreciated writers of the time, as a rough definition of feminism, if you take a doormat to be a non-talking abused female. But in what way the female is abused has never been and is still not a universally agreed matter. This was the cause of the rifts in the modern school of feminist thought that prominently originated in the eighteenth century. These rifts still exist today, and so with these different opinions arose different types of feminism, each with its own explanation, agenda, and solution. Without trying to oversimplify a rather nuanced subject I will now attempt to explore these divisions in a very concise and structured manner, and using a historical approach.

Read Now: Is nudist culture feminism or extremism?

Different types of feminism

Liberal feminism

Among the earliest feminist movement, this philosophy concerned itself with gender inequality coming from the presumed disappointing intellect of the female that denied her education, employment, and social advancement and also promoted the image of the ideal woman as the homebound partner suitable only for keeping house. This had resulted in the inability of a woman to attain material comfort without the necessity of a restrictive marriage. Many women had to turn to prostitution which became the fourth largest feminine occupation in Victorian England, and these prostitutes, products of a society power-structured on the basis of gender, were regularly hunted out, manhandled, and arrested indiscriminately by a male-controlled government on account of the rising sexually contagious diseases in communities without a consideration that their male clienteles might have well been the carriers.

Among The Repeal of the Contagious Diseases Act which had sought after protecting the rights of these prostitutes, the liberal feminists wielded handy political and legal instruments to pursue other reforms on employment, education and marital laws. For the ideal home woman image had also fostered domestic violence, emotional abuse, skewed sexual morals in favour of the man, lack of ability of the female to own property of any sorts after marriage, or to have custody of her children after divorce.

A major figure here is Mary Wollstonecraft, the mother of the female writer that gave the world the classic “I, Frankenstein.” She and others long after her fought to release women from the kitchens and into schools and higher educational institutions. The success of the movement had shown that women could at their ease take on scholarly interests just as could men, and it saw women flourish who came to believe that their potentials as women in society were clamped by these pre-conceived gender roles. Classic examples of these are Beecher Stowe, who would go on to be delightfully charged with having written a worthy contender for the Greatest American Novel; Marie Curie, the noble lady that died discovering radioactivity; and Mary Ann Evans, the wordsmith who had to use a man’s name in order to ensure appropriate critiquing of her works.

Read Now: What does it mean to be a feminist in Nigeria?

Socialist feminism

The crowning achievement of Liberal Feminism was to have been the giving of the vote to women and their enrolment into parliament. But these electoral and political reforms did not automatically translate into social or economic success. Women were paid less than men in workplaces and in parliament, there were still little opportunities for social advancement as the issue of pregnancy, maternity leaves, low psychological threshold were often cited as among many rationales for women’s low wages or forbiddance to higher echelons of office in industry. It was during this time also that Socialism gained rage. Marxist Socialism as a revolutionary concept charged the working class to upend the current exploitative capitalists to achieve a classless society in which everyone, including workers and industrialists, was equal and had the same amount of rights as the other.

Feminism hopped on this ideology and proclaimed that women were still subjugated because of the capitalist politico-economic system that exploited women who exercised both free labor of home-duty and poorly renumerated long-hours labor of semi-skilled factory work, while the male capitalists were eating fat from their underpaid labor, and so from that higher economic ground men could constantly dominate them in other social spheres. Compared to other class contradictions the Marxist feminists held the social and economic subjugation of women as the most fundamental oppression and a situation that had to be altered only by the means of a socialist feminist revolution.  

Radical feminism

While some leaned on socialism, asserting the masculine gender, the upper class of the capitalist society, as an oppressive force to be leveled down, others saw feminine subjugation as a fact of humanity that long preceded the coming of capitalism. The ancient civilizations of the Bronze Age, said these radicals, had cultures that were intolerant of females and their desired placements in society, as for example the Chinese women of the 1000 B.C. Zhou were foot-bound until they could no longer walk and were thus admonished to stay at home to serve their husbands.

Examples like these had caused the radicals to believe that the only way to fully win women’s rights was to completely overhaul more than five thousand years of orchestrated oppression. And this condition was naturally blamed on the fact that it was the woman who bore the brunt of reproduction and naturally had more stake in a child who had dwelled in her womb for almost a year.

So they had advocated family planning and birth control policies, fought for the promulgation of abortion law, and even went as far as fielding the plausibility of some futuristic technology that would make breeding possible outside the female reproductive organ. It is the ultimate hope of the radical feminist to make the world genderless so that political, social, and economic rights are not awarded on the consideration of what sexual organs one possesses.

Cultural Feminism

For those who had thought the proffered solutions of Radical feminism very unorthodox and infeasible but had come to share their beliefs, especially of how reproduction defined gender, they came to an understanding of role of society in constructing gender roles and norms, and how these norms had come to be politicized and helped to maintain the male-female power dynamic. This movement became prominent after the two world wars when the belief in the purpose of humanity had taken a forlorn tone after the catastrophe that splurged in their wake.

Women began generally to lash out against the prescribed traditional norms of homely and gentile spirit attached to a woman, and to wear loose clothing that accentuated the shape of their body, took up smoking which was previously a masculine pastime. They also spoke against the laxity with which society viewed male promiscuity while reinforcing the role of the faithful wife or the virgin female youth.

Individual feminism

This movement began to bloom with the Millennials, and went in line with the dogma of their rugged independence. They preached for the female to accept responsibility for her actions and her life. They preached the respect for all sexual choices, the legalization of sex work, the sexual liberation of women, and freedom to take up more than one sexual partner if they so desire, without having to be rebuked for it. Today, it still rides with “Fourth Wave feminism” which has begun to speak out against rape, sexual harassment, and body-shaming.

Many people, especially those living in low-resource countries, want the opportunity to study abroad. When I was in high school, the most common countries people wanted to study in were the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. These countries have world-renowned institutions and are also English-speaking. The occasional adventurous student would look into France or Germany, but for the most part, these three countries topped the charts.

However, when it comes to studying in the U.S., people aren’t asking themselves all the right questions. By the time they get here, they are left in a difficult rut to come out from. So today, I will be sharing with you some questions that you should be asking to figure out if studying in the U.S. is right for you. Please note that these questions can be applied to studying abroad in general.

What course do I want to study?

Many U.S. universities offer a wide range of courses. One thing I love about the education system is the ability to change your course after being admitted. The flexibility in course selection is amazing. However, many professional courses are not offered at an undergraduate level. What do I mean? Courses such as medicine, law, physical therapy, etc are post-graduate level courses. You already have to complete a first degree (usually within the U.S.) before pursuing them. This means that a lot of resources will be dedicated to pursuing such degrees. Other professions such as therapists require at least a graduate level degree to even be licensed. If you want to pursue any of such degrees straight up, you may need to reconsider coming to the U.S.

Read Now: What’s happiness to you?

Where do I want to end up after school?

This goes hand in hand with choosing your course. A degree may apply in the U.S, but may not be applicable in your home country. Take for example, physician assistants. This is a well-recognized profession in the United States, but many countries do not accredit them. If staying in the U.S is not part of your long-term goal, you need to be careful about studying a course that wouldn’t be applicable in the country you wish to live.

Read Now: What to do after NYSC ?

Am I looking for a path to citizenship?

Some international students come to the U.S. with the intention of going back home after their studies, while others do not. If your plan is to live and work in the U.S., you need to start familiarizing yourself with the various paths to citizenship. Certain fields such as engineering and healthcare have better chances with H1B visas (a type of work permit which has at the time of writing been halted by President Trump). As well, immigration in the U.S. is constantly changing depending on the presidency. If remaining in your country of study is very important to you, I would suggest starting now to research various options. I would also suggest looking up more countries with friendly immigration policies for international students.

Do I have a family and other dependents?

If you are the breadwinner of your family, this is very important. International students are only allowed to work on campus, not more than 20 hours a week. It is very difficult to sustain a family on such an income. Depending on the type of visa that your dependents are on, they may not be able to work at all in the United States. You also need to show proof that you can care for your dependents before being issued a visa. If the limited ability to work will affect your family, you may need to consider schooling in a different country that allows off-campus work opportunities.

How much am I willing to spend?

More money talks. International students are not always aware of how they can cut costs while schooling abroad. Options exist such as attending community college, going to state schools, scholarships, and grants, etc. I suggest looking into these options and contacting your school’s financial aid office for more information. As well, various countries have programs where they send their citizens to study in the U.S. in return for service for a number of years. That may be something to look into. whatever it is, you want to be able to cover your expenses. It’s one thing to be broke, it’s another thing to be broke on foreign soil.

Well, that’s all I have today. Please let me know if I am missing out on anything else in the comment section. Check out my other posts on Adabekee.

Is it only mere optimism to suggest that sometimes wars are needed to get peace? Or a practical tour de force borne out on historical conscience? Or rather common knowledge needing nothing as punishing as rigorous insight? Or, when stripped of self-righteous rationalizations, a questionable ethic founded on a Marxist, far-right-wing, or progressive liberal-minded ideology?

Before consenting to any of these possibilities, we would have to point out two inevitable assumptions inherent in the suggestion itself. First, in plain view is the assumption that war is, sometimes, a requirement, or one among a requirement for peace, a bitter price to be paid today for a peaceful future. The second is the rather subtly hidden connotation that, sometimes, peace is the hoped-for conclusion to war, or what is the same thing, the reason behind war regardless of its untold outcome. To begin to think about the second assumption is to attempt to bring the first justice. For if the true motive for a war is first laid bare, we might hope to find compulsion in connecting its final achievements to its initial purpose, and learning something of its success as a means to its stated end.

Then there’s the unavoidable issue of knowing exactly what this stated end is, as, with every other concept, peace is as much fuzzy in its dimensions to offer up a cut-and-dried definition for our use. To keep this as clear as possible and at the risk of presenting so shallow, and in consequence meaningless, a simplistic model for truth we shall skirt around every entanglement that might waylay us journeyward and stick only to generalizations, digging in only occasionally, by way of examples, for clarification’s sake.

Before consenting to any of these possibilities, we would have to point out two inevitable assumptions inherent in the suggestion itself. First, in plain view is the assumption that war is, sometimes, a requirement, or one among a requirement for peace, a bitter price to be paid today for a peaceful future. The second is the rather subtly hidden connotation that, sometimes, peace is the hoped-for conclusion to war, or what is the same thing, the reason behind war regardless of its untold outcome. To begin to think about the second assumption is to attempt to bring the first justice. For if the true motive for a war is first laid bare, we might hope to find compulsion in connecting its final achievements to its initial purpose, and learning something of its success as a means to its stated end.

For our purpose, for the purpose of discovering the true motive of war made on a peaceful strength, we shall define peace then, as defined by them whose job description contains the legal right to make war, that is the governments of the modern nation-states. Because the right to rule of governments comes from the mandate of its subjects, peace must to them be a national state of affairs in which the lives of their subjects are successfully protected from both internal and external threats, the supposition, of course, being that democracy is that glittering opaque dress in which the government of the day strives to be seen, however deadening maybe its appearance in the nude. Defense from internal and external sources then is what, from here on, we shall mean by peace. Let us now depart from this point, and see where that takes us.

Peace as defense from an external source, be it a border skirmish with a neighboring country, aggressive air warning-strike from a rivaling nation, or terrorist threat from a foreign group or country, immediately sends us prying into the missions of global bodies already set up to mediate international relations in hope of some form of stable geopolitical order. Permit the UN to come to mind.

Sprung out in 1945 as a result of the distaste of witnesses to the large-scale inhumane ravages left in the wake of the war, the newly formed UN, a composition of countries grown averse to the idea of a global dispute of any kind, started to organize peaceful military missions in regions like post-war borderlands to ensure that the compromise reached between warring party countries were effected as agreed. Hitler’s war had been a military lesson in the inevitable danger of appeasing policies, and the UN had taken note. With only armored cars and light weaponry, the blue-beret UN soldiers served to intimidate the usurping elements into deterrence for the duration of the peacebuilding process. To keep the peace, the UN needed only to employ a tacit threat of violence, a will to act – a simple response that could have entirely prevented a second world war. Even after the murmurings of Hitler’s imperial ambitions heard in French and English towns had climbed to confident screams of aggression by Germany on her neighbors, the powers that mattered stood idly by, afraid to risk war, continually giving in to each of Hitler’s demands hoping that he could be appeased. But by the time it was too late to do anything, a war had penciled itself in the schedule of unfolding eventualities. “Throughout history,” says Erik Durschmied in his book, Blood of Revolution, “it has been the weakness of those in power, men who failed when the situation called for strong, even brutal measures, that allowed  the barbarous to take charge.”

History is scattered with such tales as weak leadership wreaking disastrous consequences. Before Wudi, the war-making Han Emperor of China, rose to power, other emperors had appeased barbaric straddlers who raided the empire’s borders and the result was always that they continued more aggressively with their raid, but it was only until the coming of Wudi that peace bribes were done away with and an army was fielded to force the barbarian’s retreat away from the borders and into the steppes.

Han Wudi
Han Wudi | Image from Ancient-origins

As we too well know, wars in the past have been fought between countries on the flimsiest of excuses from the prince of a kingdom bedding the queen of another, to unfounded ridiculous ideas like Manifest Destiny. But today we find that the simple threat of a nuclear attack is efficient enough to halt the splurge of spats between countries into a war. Witness this year’s (2020) US-Iraq conflict, and last year’s Indian-Pakistan Kashmir dispute, heated confrontations that eventually fizzled down to an airstrike or two, some fatal gunfights, and copious internet memes.

Although we can trust that sometimes wars, and the threat of them or fear of their consequences at least, are sometimes required to ensure international peace, how about the crises in the Middle East? They are to some countries as remote a problem as the fabled Armageddon, and an investigation into their hybrid nature reveals a complex tangling up of more than three ethnic factions fighting for hegemony, sometimes backed up with proxy agenda. Except to assume that these wars are fought to restore internal peace or to defend external peace by waging a global anti-Jihad crusade against Islamic terrorists, we shall not concern ourselves with these intricacies.

To internal peace. It is the agreed function of government that it should ensure peace whenever there break out sectional differences, terrorist elements, and anything at all within its geography that chooses to threaten the lives of its subjects, those from whose assent it derives its power. But when statistical evidence pronounces that six times more people worldwide were casualties of their own governments than of international wars, we might start to ponder a revisit to the meaning of peace. Do we take for granted that these casualties of government are usurpers of the peace, or do we contend that the government, legally wielding a monopoly to violence, has become a usurper itself, and is thus no longer qualified to offer us a proper definition?

If we are to select the second and more open-ended option, to whom does it fall then to rescue us from this semantic upheaval. The subject, on whose behalf the government exists, and who is better fit to make them more worthwhile assessment on the success of his/her being protected from internal or external threats? It cannot indeed be otherwise. So at any rate we are made to understand that the government itself can at times constitute an internal threat against which the subject should fend itself. And it is only when the glittering opaque dress of the deadening democratic politician in the fullness of time washes away transparent that the subject can discern the truth.

Nigeria is a country happily tolerant of abuse. Its people blunt their will to act when they too readily settle for national crumbs, and not least because they pine for a day when they can be just as moneyed as the corrupt politician of the time (there is a book in the works I have with this concern as its theme) when they can stand tall and influential among their peers.

There is also the material Marxist who, given to sentiments about food, would find it astute to suggest that man must live first by bread, and then faith or whatever keeps a man whole, and, if he were to be deprived of bread, would sooner die. So to empathize with the Marxist, protecting the life of the subject would go so far as including not depriving him/her of food. It becomes the prerogative of the subjects to bring war to such a system that they should think to normalize that kind of injustice. Such is the situation with civil wars, where a minority economically maligned and politically abused, fearing for its life, rebels and tries to secede, only to have war pronounced on it by the national government. Here too, we can hold the motive to be peace, purporting, from now henceforth, that it is the maligned subject or group who can lay claim to a proper definition of peace. There is the other peculiar case where the civil war is not between a maligned group and an oppressive government but among equal ethnicities such as seen in Somalia, or Congo. What then should we call peace here, when all warring ethnicities are just as afraid of the other and are struggling to be in power to protect the lives of its own people? That is of little relevance to us, if we are at once to recall that since all the citizens are “equally maligned” and are looking to change the status quo, then the motive for war here is also peace.

Having gained one more knowledge of this vague concept that is peace, should we not also recast our earlier assessments in a richer light, and so doing expect to make a more enlightened value judgement about peace-driven wars at the end of this noise-making?

Now that the authority of proclaiming the conditions for peace lies with the subjects, the international order would only be thought peaceful when every citizen in every country believes in the justness of the international economic systems of world tarrifs and quotas and political systems that do not provide for any kind of abuse or deprivation of bread. But it is not so. We have only to refer to the US accusations of unfair economic practices towards lesser countries and political manipulations of third-world country leaders that would go to make an american neo-imperial hegemony to see the futility of this resolution. Even religious pollution from western decadence has received its due blame in the reason for the 9/11 terrorist attacks. If wars should be fought on these grounds, on the grounds that the war-makers are seeking a peaceful system adjudged from their perception of what is economic and political comfort, we should hope to see, on an international scale, the citizens of third-world countries, apparently deprived by bodies like the WTO, declare war on the profiting countries, we should hope to see Africans holding onto old colonial grudges, “nursing racial grievance like a virtue” as described by Naipaul’s Ralph Singh, at last given a vindictive opening for war, we should also hope to see relatively rich south korean tech moguls, whose 5G technologies unjustly deprived of American markets in a world of gradually liberalizing economies, in league with marginalized poor african peasants suffering from aggressive US agricultural tarrifs.

This last point automatically presents an irritating problem. Just when can you say you have been deprived of bread? The sensitive American, decrying his marginalization on social media by the big one percent of his country, does so from an Apple laptop in an air-conditioned room. How do we know, as finely put by Achebe in a Man of the People that “Nanga has taken more than the owner can ignore,” if he did take at all.

Outrightly disgusting is the reality that peace is, first and foremost, a mundane matter of comparison, an ideal striving for equality, and later a genuine fact of oppression. It might be true that all humans are equal. but it is more so true that, a la George Orwell, “some are more equal than others,” for a time at least. Yes, western abundance was an invariable consequence of precolonial mercantilism, slave trade, and colonialism. But it is easy to forget that the form western exploitation takes today is made possible by the present corrupt third-world leaders when we gloss over our internal realities and focus rather on scaling both African and Western economies, not knowing that industrialization was no more expenditure of mental energies of generations past than it was an investment funded by cheaply acquired African raw materials. When we begin to look to ourselves, first of all, basing our own growth on our own energies, releasing ourselves from the consequences of our local corrupt politicians, when we do this and still sense an unfair economic world order bearing down on our liberation from neo-imperial dependence, then we can resume lamenting the old injustice of the White Man again and thereupon bring war to his doorstep. So too with the sensitive American who, year after year, ungratefully scales up his economic comfort, so that he always manages to be in a position to cry poverty at such time as there should be a war to be made on an economically oppressive government.

 We must not agree with the Marxist, who believes in some clockwork contradiction that timely arrives in the shape of a revolution to drive society to another needed phase of equality and hence prosperity, just epochs shy of that much-awaited moment in the horizon when the worker shall rule for all eternity on the behalf of all his fellow equal comrades. Nor must we agree with the liberal man who, given the optimum opportunity, merely sows the seed of anarchy in a point of man’s history to flower in the annals of posterity.

That leaves us with one basic condition on which to wage war: upon deep dialogue and understanding. It is too often said that if the Treaty of Versailles had been ratified with the weakness of the defeated Germans taken into account, they would not have felt humiliated enough to do over a global war. But it is also my belief that if the German principalities had not been strengthened well beyond their capacity for policing the imperialist tendencies of post-Napoleonic France, they would not have felt any exaggerated national pride and any vainglorious need to militarize and draw the other powers into an imperial world war, only to be defeated and, in a chronic bout of inferiority disorder, to pronounce themselves a superior race worthy of an empire.

When wars are mindlessly fought for the sake of peace, without a deep dialogue to ascertain what this peace is in terms of the strength and weaknesses of both sides, then it is at best a temporary or fragile peace, and at worst an invitation to the repeat of another war. Take the Nigerian civil war for instance. The Northerners were suspicious of Igbo economic dominance, the Igbos of northern political dominance. But what if they had parleyed in brotherhood? What if they had come to the understanding that the leaderless and enterprising Igbo, the least inexperienced in state administration, could for the time relinquish genuine democratic power to the North while piloting the economy for the newly independent people, making the peaceful Yoruba a mediating group to see through this understanding and as well protect its interest and that of the other minorities until some gradual communalism lumps each of these groups into one national whole? Could we have seen the hatching of a roughly democratic nation-state? We may never know. If only because first, inconsolably inflamed sensibilities are a natural given in the haunt of newly familiarizing strangers, and second, the African state was at the time mired in the complex web of neocolonial interests which it had no time to contemplate.

Nigeria Civil War
Ojukwu and the Biafran Soldiers | Picture from Vanguard Nigeria

But we do know that after a civil war and a pronouncement by the Nigerian government that there was “No Victor, no vanquished,” the ethnic tensions between these two groups to this day still run as deep and fresh as sixty years ago.

The difficult question still remains, is the price for peace, war? To this, I offer nothing as nearly absolute as an answer, but only caution: war should be waged, only if deep dialogue and understanding have failed. A dialogue that probes into the capabilities of the subject citizen, to see if his being alive, taking into account the activities and beliefs that keep him so, is hampered by the state, an understanding that his strengths are not exaggerated in his agitation for peace, an understanding that holds governments accountable to their citizens,  an understanding that a genius in a capitalist state who has worked out his wealth from value creation must not prey on the worker’s right to live, renumerating him as handsomely as his skill demands, an understanding that the worker in turn, wholly satisfied with his job and not possessed of the mental equipment to churn out value or wealth but is still able to support a modest fairly-holidaying lifestyle, must not, in comparing himself to the genius, confess to marginalization and start seeking a redress of wealth through orchestrated revolutions. He must view himself as one more unique tool in the service of humanity, and nothing more. It is all too sad that gratitude has lost its virtue.

Lastly, we live in an age where truth has dropped its proud universal airs and come to settle among the dwellings of mortal men, and we see this plurality of truth (that most sophisticated weapon of the liberal man), attempting to unravel some four hundred years of nation-building work. With little foresight one can understand why in these times it is only with patience that we can dialogue and understand the varying opinions of one another. Though the results might be uneasy compromises, skewed in favour of the most dogmatic, patience will always weed out the unfavourable policies, and love . . . love conquers all.

Digital Love

Humans have never been more dependent on the internet than ever before, with virtually everything being “digitized” even our love lives. This is in contrast to a few years back where you had to meet someone physically and asses them through first impressions, gradually knowing them yourself without having to worry about if they lied on their tinder profile or not.

In the modern era where internet dating is rampant, we get first impressions from a person’s profile. While things may seem to have been easier this just ironically complicates things. The consequences are so grave that you might find yourself waking up in the middle of the night and wondering why the person beside you in bed is so different from what you had imagined.

Oh Joe

Read Now: Signs of deep love in a relationship

Difference With Time

Kids these days are in some ways unlucky because they are already so exposed than kids were in the past. They grow up even more insecure and less naive.

Read Now: What is happiness to you?

Most don’t understand the joy of knowing someone intimately not based on first impressions they get off the internet but that sweet sensation you get in putting down your metaphorical shield and allowing someone to love you gradually like the slow process love should be much like evolution, maybe a little faster.

The Problem

People look to social media to understand and learn how to love from celebrities or influencers. Their eyes and brains are filled with happy pictures of people who seem to be or are really in love. This is in contrast to before where you had to figure things out by checking what works for you and your partner.

Break Up

This causes high expectations which in turn leaders to breakups and infidelities. With words like, “side chick”, “side piece” one can easily see how cheating is normalized. Little wonder why the infidelity rate is high, according to Hernom.com about 40% of unmarried relationships and 25% of marriages see at least one incident of infidelity. An issue of Marriage and Divorce journal also stated that 70% engage in some kind of affair sometime during their marital life.

Things may not be so gloomy after all. People have claimed to find the “right one” through the internet and that number seems to be growing continuously. There may still be hope after all as time gets by we can better navigate and develop a sort of “digital seventh sense” which may be able to digitally filter the persons we meet on the internet just from their online bio data. Thanks for reading my Ted talk.

Viewing happiness as a Nigerian

I did some surveys on twitter to understand how most Nigerians view happiness. I came to a few conclusions.

Nigerians mostly view happiness as social status, reaching a certain place in life, having a lot of money if not more, being able to afford anything and the list keeps ongoing.

A few questions people had difficulty or inconclusive answers to were as follows:

Can you be happy all the time?

Let’s say you attain the social status you craved, now what?

Can money buy happiness?

What does happiness mean to you?

Before we go into the details explaining what happiness is, let look at what isn’t happiness for a better understanding.

“Happiness is like butterfly; the more you chase it, the more it will elude you, but if you turn your attention to other things, it will come and sit softly on your shoulder”

Henry david thoreau

Happy isn’t a state of mind

It’s believed that every individual has a level of happiness. Psychologists refer to it as a set-point theory of happiness. It varies for each individual based on the environment that they grew up and the life experiences they have had so far in life.

Most at times when you receive a salary alert/twitter giveaway alert, news of your loved one putting to bed, gift and so on, you would feel a level of increase in your current state of happiness. After some period of time, it returns back to it’s set point.

Equally the same when you received news of losing a loved one, your level of happiness decreased, creating a sad feeling. After a certain period, it returns back to it’s set point.

Read Now: How to build your self-worth to improve your self-esteem.

Does more money mean happiness?

“Happiness is not in the mere possession of money; it lies in the joy of achievement, in the thrill of creative effort.”

Franklin D. Roosevelt

During my survey on twitter, most Nigerians if not all agreed that money is their source of happiness. A lot of Nigerian live below the poverty line which makes it hard to be happy.

For freelancers and entrepreneurs, the process of earning money gives them happiness rather than the money itself.

According to thriveglobal.com, researchers found that having more money directly increases life satisfaction. Nevertheless, after a certain period of time, the impact it has on happiness diminishes. And those with little money felt happier with increased earning.

Yet, money is needed to maintain the level of happiness(set point theory of happiness) or to keep it afloat.

What does happiness mean to you?

“Happiness is being contented with what you have, living in freedom and liberty, having a good family life, and good friends.”

Divyanka Tripathi

In Nigeria, people live with lots of expectations, either from people or themselves. Life isn’t a destination but rather a day to day journey.

Carrying a lot in the heart weights down your happiness and can disrupt chemical imbalance which could lead to depression.

Happiness is the ability to overcome negative emotions, seeing positive in the worst scenario. The ability to connect and affect others positively. A sense of well-being, joy, or contentment.

Your happiness simply means how contented you are with your life, how you interact with your family and friends. How you allow your day to day affects you.

Understanding “feminism” in Nigeria

Feminism/feminists are two of the most commonly used word in Nigeria’s social media platforms since 2010 according to Google trends. Most people have few to little understanding of what feminism actually means due to how frequently it’s often misused in Nigeria.

Some Nigerians view it as a stand against men due to how often the words are associate with “hate men” analogy. Some Nigerians criticize feminism/ feminist from a religious standpoint. Does beg the question of what is feminism actually?

What does feminism mean to you?

Feminism can be defined in simple terms as the fight for all people equality not just “women”. People should not be excluded based on their sex, race, tribe, religion, social standing, and sexual preference. Feminism is more than just gender equality.

Read Now: Understanding the LGBTQ+ community

That’s is the true meaning of feminism, but often on social media platforms, people use feminism to represent the wrong image which creates a horrible look for what feminism actually stands for.

Misandry is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against or boys in general


When next you come across people associating themselves with the terms feminist. Yet only talks about their hatred towards men, they don’t represent feminism rather misandry.

Read Now: Speaking Up Against Sexual Harassment

Nudity & Feminism, What’s the connection?

Feminism means equality, not nudity, yet feminism stands with liberation. Over the years women have been subjected to what to wear, how to sit, and how to walk to mention quite a few.

In recent times more women can dress as they see fit without being subjected to the slut slender.

Read Now: Nudism culture: Feminism or Extremism?

Often people argue that male and female nudity isn’t the same. In truth, yes they are not the same, women have been covering their bodies in all religions and traditions over the years.

If women began to cover their eyes, after a long period of time, covering eyes would be the same as covering boobs. Her body, her choice!

The notion of feminism is against tradition/ religion?

Feminism isn’t against tradition nor religion. If the tradition in question is against gender equality then such tradition should be changed or scraped away because the world has moved passed those archaic ways.

Feminism is all about togetherness, peace, and one love. The notion that feminism is against religion is guff.

Read Now: Love in the social media era.


If you believe in one love, togetherness, peace, equality for all then you are already a feminist.

You should speak up because your voice means liberation not just for women but for discriminations based on religion, gender, tribe, social standing, and social orientation.